MIDWEST CLIMATE: CLIMATOLOGY REFERENCES

Central U.S. Climatology References

Climatologies of weather phenomena can be quite informative regarding the variation and trends in weather features, and useful in determining the range of extreme conditions.  This page presents climatologies, largely based on observational data and centered on the middle part of the United States.  Some studies examining biases in long-term observational data sets also are included, especially for temperature.  Most of these studies are from American Meteorological Society journals, but other journals and state or agency reports are also included.  Links to the manuscript abstract are provided in most cases.  This web page will be updated with climatologies from additional weather phenomena, and as new climatologies are discovered additional citations will be added.

Current climatologies include:

 

AIR MASSES

Davis, R. E., 2011:  Decline in wintertime air-mass transition frequencies in the USA, Climate Research, 46(2), 121-136.  http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/cr/v46/n2/p121-136/

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CONTRAILS

Carleton, A. M., D. J. Travis, K. Master, S. Vazhapparambu, 2008:  Composite atmospheric environments of jet contrail outbreaks for the United States, J of Appl. Meteor. and Climatology, 47(2), 641-667.  http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=17ccb31d-3eaa-4719-bb0c-1cc504b8b10c%40sessionmgr114&vid=1&hid=118&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=31549054

Silva, A. D., M. S. Aghazarian, J. Bernhardt, D. J. Travis, J. Allard, 2013:  Mid-season climate diagnostics of jet contrail ‘outbreaks’ and implications eastern US sky-cover trends, Climate Research, 56(3), 209-230.  http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/cr/v56/n3/p209-230/

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DERECHO

Bentley, M.L., and T.L. Mote, 1998:  A Climatology of Derecho-Producing Mesoscale Convective Systems in the Central and Eastern United States, 1986–95. Part I: Temporal and Spatial Distribution, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(11), 2527-2540. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<2527:ACODPM>2.0.CO;2]

Coniglio, M.C., and D.J. Stensrud, 2004:  Interpreting the Climatology of Derechos, Weather and Forecasting, 19(3), 595-605. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2004)019<0595:ITCOD>2.0.CO;2]

Johns, R.H., and W.D. Hirt, 1987:  Derechos: Widespread Convectively Induced Windstorms, Weather and Forecasting, 2(3), p 32-49. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1987)002<0032:DWCIW>2.0.CO;2]

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DROUGHT

Alley, W.M., 1984: The Palmer Drought Severity Index: Limitations and Assumptions. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23, 1100–1109. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1984)023<1100:TPDSIL>2.0.CO;2

Anderson, M.C., C. Hain, B. Wardlow, A. Pimstein, J.R. Mecikalski, and W.P. Kustas, 2011: Evaluation of Drought Indices Based on Thermal Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration over the Continental United States. J. Climate, 24, 2025–2044. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3812.1

Byun, H-R, and D.A. Wilhite, 1999: Objective Quantification of Drought Severity and Duration. J. Climate, 12, 2747–2756.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<2747:OQODSA>2.0.CO;2

Chang, F-C, and E.A. Smith, 2001: Hydrological and Dynamical Characteristics of Summertime Droughts over U.S. Great Plains. J. Climate, 14, 2296–2316.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<2296:HADCOS>2.0.CO;2

Charusombat, U., and D. Niyogi, 2011: A Hydroclimatological Assessment of Regional Drought Vulnerability: A Case Study of Indiana Droughts. Earth Interact., 15, 1–65. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2011EI343.1

Cook, E.R., D.M. Meko, D.W. Stahle, and M.K. Cleaveland, 1999: Drought Reconstructions for the Continental United States, Journal of Climate, 12(4), 1145-1162.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<1145:DRFTCU>2.0.CO;2.

Diaz, H.F., 1983: Drought In The United States, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 22(1), 3-16. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1983)022<0003:DITUS>2.0.CO;2 

Groisman, P.Y., R.W. Knight, T.R. Karl, D.R. Easterling, B. Sun, and J.H. Lawrimore, 2004: Contemporary Changes of the Hydrological Cycle over the Contiguous United States: Trends Derived from In Situ Observations. J. Hydrometeor, 5, 64–85. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0064:CCOTHC>2.0.CO;2

Heim, R.R., 2002: A Review of Twentieth-Century Drought Indices Used in the United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 1149–1165.

Heim, R.R., J.H. Lawrimore, D.B. Wuertz, A.M. Waple, and T.W.R. Wallis, 2003: The REDTI and MSI: Two New National Climate Impact Indices. J. Appl. Meteor., 42, 1435–1442.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1435:TRAMTN>2.0.CO;2

Herweijer, C., R. Seager, E.R. Cook, and J. Emile-Geay, 2007: North American Droughts of the Last Millennium from a Gridded Network of Tree-Ring Data, Journal of Climate, 20(7), 1353-1376. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4042.1

Huff, F.A., and S.A. Changnon, Jr., 1963: Drought Climatology of Illinois, Bulletin 50, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL , 68p. [http://www.isws.illinois.edu/pubdoc/B/ISWSB-50.pdf]

Karl, T.R., 1983: Some Spatial Characteristics of Drought Duration in the United States, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 22(8), 1356-1366. doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1983)022<1356:SSCODD>2.0.CO;2 

Karl, T.R., and  R.G. Quayle, 1981: The 1980 Summer Heat Wave and Drought in Historical Perspective. Monthly Weather Review, 109(10), 2055-2073. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<2055:TSHWAD>2.0.CO;2 

Karl, T., F. Quinlan, and D.S. Ezell, 1987: Drought Termination and Amelioration: Its Climatological Probability. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 26, 1198–1209.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<1198:DTAAIC>2.0.CO;2

Keyantash, J., and J.A. Dracup, 2002: The Quantification of Drought: An Evaluation of Drought Indices. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 1167–1180. doi: http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0477(2002)083%3C1191%3ATQODAE%3E2.3.CO%3B2

Klugman, M.R., 1978: Drought in the Upper Midwest, 1931–1969. J. Appl. Meteor., 17, 1425–1431. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1978)017<1425:DITUM>2.0.CO;2

Mo, K.C., 2008: Model-Based Drought Indices over the United States. J. Hydrometeor, 9, 1212–1230. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008JHM1002.1

Quiring, S.M., 2009: Developing Objective Operational Definitions for Monitoring Drought. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 48, 1217–1229.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JAMC2088.1

Redmond, K.T., 2002: The Depiction of Drought: A Commentary. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 1143–1147. doi: http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0477(2002)083%3C1143%3ATDODAC%3E2.3.CO%3B2

Sheffield, J., and E.F. Wood, 2008: Global Trends and Variability in Soil Moisture and Drought Characteristics, 1950–2000, from Observation-Driven Simulations of the Terrestrial Hydrologic Cycle. J. Climate, 21, 432–458. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1822.1

Sridhar, V., K.G. Hubbard, J. You, and E.D. Hunt, 2008: Development of the Soil Moisture Index to Quantify Agricultural Drought and Its “User Friendliness” in Severity-Area-Duration Assessment. J. Hydrometeor, 9, 660–676. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007JHM892.1

Vicente-Serrano, S.M., and Coauthors, 2012: Performance of Drought Indices for Ecological, Agricultural, and Hydrological Applications. Earth Interact., 16, 1–27.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2012EI000434.1

Wu, R., and J.L. Kinter, 2009: Analysis of the Relationship of U.S. Droughts with SST and Soil Moisture: Distinguishing the Time Scale of Droughts. J. Climate, 22, 4520–4538.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2841.1

Yao, Y., S. Liang, Q. Qin, and K. Wang, 2010: Monitoring Drought over the Conterminous United States Using MODIS and NCEP Reanalysis-2 Data. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49, 1665–1680. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010JAMC2328.1

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FLOODS & HEAVY RAINFALL

Blumenfeld, K.A., 2010: The Frequency of High-Impact Convective Weather Events in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49, 619–631. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JAMC2223.1

Brooks, H.E., and D.J. Stensrud, 2000: Climatology of Heavy Rain Events in the United States from Hourly Precipitation Observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1194–1201.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<1194:COHREI>2.0.CO;2

Changnon, Stanley A., 2002: Hydroclimatic Differences in Precipitation Measured by Two Dense Rain Gauge Networks. J. Hydrometeor, 3, 66–79. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0066:HDIPMB>2.0.CO;2

Changnon, Stanley A., 2002: Frequency of Heavy Rainstorms on Areas from 10 to 10 000 km2, Defined Using Dense Rain Gauge Networks. J. Hydrometeor, 3, 220–223.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0220:FOHROA>2.0.CO;2

Groisman, Pavel Ya., Richard W. Knight, Thomas R. Karl, 2012: Changes in Intense Precipitation over the Central United States. J. Hydrometeor, 13, 47–66. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-11-039.1

Higgins, R.W., V.E. Kousky, and P. Xie, 2011:  Extreme Precipitation events in the south-central United States during May and June 2010:  Historical perspective, Role of ENSO, and trends,.  J. Hydrometeorology, 12, 1056-1070. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-10-05039.1

Hitchens, N.M., H. E. Brooks, and R.S. Schumacher: 2013- 14. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Heavy Hourly Rainfall in the United States Monthly Weather Review, Volume 0, Issue 0 ( ) pp.

Junker, N.W., R.S. Schneider, S.L. Fauver, 1999: A Study of Heavy Rainfall Events during the Great Midwest Flood of 1993. Wea. Forecasting, 14, 701–712. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1999)014<0701:ASOHRE>2.0.CO;2

Kunkel, K.E., K. Andsager, and D.R. Kasterling, 1999:  Long-term trends in extreme precipitation events over the conterminous United States and Canada.  J. Climate, 12, 2515-2527. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<2515:LTTIEP>2.0.CO;2

Kunkel, K.E., D.R. Easterling, D.A.R.Kristovich, 2012:  Meteorological causes of the secular variations I n obsdrved extreme precipitation events for the conterminous United States.  J. Hydrometeorology, 13, 1131-1141. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-11-0108.1

Kunkel, K. E., D.R. Easterling, K. Redmond, and K. Hubbard, 2003: Temporal variations of extreme precipitation events in the United States: 1895–2000, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1900, 10.1029/2003GL018052. Abstract available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2003GL018052/abstract

Kunkel, K.E., 2003: North American Trends in Extreme Precipitation, Nat. Hazards, 29, 291-305. Abstract available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1023694115864

Konrad, Charles E., 2001: The Most Extreme Precipitation Events over the Eastern United States from 1950 to 1996: Considerations of Scale. J. Hydrometeor, 2, 309–325.

Pielke, R.A., and M.W. Downton, 2000: Precipitation and Damaging Floods: Trends in the United States, 1932–97. J. Climate, 13, 3625–3637. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<3625:PADFTI>2.0.CO;2

Rowe, S.T., and G. Villarini. (2013) Flooding associated with predecessor rain events over the Midwest United States. Environmental Research Letters 8:2, 024007.  Online publication date: 1-Jun-2013.

Schumacher, R.S., and R.H. Johnson, 2006: Characteristics of U.S. Extreme Rain Events during 1999–2003. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 69–85. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF900.1

Smith, J.A., M.L. Baeck, Y. Zhang, and C.A. Doswell, 2001: Extreme Rainfall and Flooding from Supercell Thunderstorms. J. Hydrometeor, 2, 469–489.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2001)002<0469:ERAFFS>2.0.CO;2

Smith, J.A., G. Villarini, and M.L. Baeck, 2011: Mixture Distributions and the Hydroclimatology of Extreme Rainfall and Flooding in the Eastern United States. J. Hydrometeor, 12, 294–309.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010JHM1242.1

Villarini, Gabriele, James A. Smith, Gabriel A. Vecchi, 2013: Changing Frequency of Heavy Rainfall over the Central United States. J. Climate, 26, 351–357. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00043.1

Yang, L., J.A. Smith, D.B. Wright, M.L. Baeck, G. Villarini, F. Tian, and H. Hu: 2013-14, Urbanization and Climate Change: An Examination of Nonstationarities in Urban Flooding,  Journal of Hydrometeorology, Volume 0, Issue 0 ( ) pp., doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-12-095.1

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FOG

Carter, H.G., 1928: Dense Fogs at Lincoln Nebraska, Monthly Weather Review, 56(7), 275-277. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1928)56<275:DFALN>2.0.CO;2

Devereau, W.C., 1930: Fog in the Ohio Valley, Monthly Weather Review, 58(3), 107. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1930)58<107:FITOV>2.0.CO;2

Court, A., and R. D. Gerston, 1966: Fog frequency in the United States. Geographical Review, 56, 543–550.

Friedlein, M. T., 2004: Dense fog climatology Chicago O’Hare International Airport, July 1996–April 2002. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85(4), 515–517. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-85-4-515

George, J. J., 1940: Fog: Its causes and forecasting with special reference to eastern and southern United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 21, 135–148.

Peace, R.L. Jr., 1969:  Heavy-Fog Regions in the Conterminous United States, Monthly Weather Review, 97(2),116-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1969)097<0116:HRITCU>2.3.CO;2

Ratzer, M. A., cited 1998: Toward a climatology of dense fog at Chicago‘s O’Hare International Airport. NWS Tech. Service Paper TSP-02, NOAA/NWS/Central Region Headquarters, Kansas City, MO. [http://www.crh.noaa.gov/crh/?n=tsp-02]

Stephens, G. T., 1943: A study in the forecasting of fog and radiation stratus at Omaha. Institute of Meteorology Misc. Rep. 11, University of Chicago, 27 pp.

Stone, R. G., 1936: Fog in the United States and adjacent regions. Geographical Review, 26, 111–134.

Vinzani, P.G., and  P.J. Lamb, 1985: Temporal and Spatial Visibility Variations in the Illinois Vicinity during 1949–80, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology. 24(5), 435-451. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1985)024<0435:TASVVI>2.0.CO;2

Westcott, N.E., 2007: Some Aspects of Dense Fog in the Midwestern United States, Weather and Forecasting, 22(3) , 457-465. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF990.1

Westcott, N.E., and  D.A.R. Kristovich, 2009:  A Climatology and Case Study of Continental Cold Season Dense Fog Associated with Low Clouds, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 48(11), 2201-2214. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JAMC1999.1

Willis, C. Hardwick, W.C., 1973: Monthly Fog Frequency in the Continental United States, Monthly Weather Review,101(10), 763-766. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1973)101<0763:MFFITC>2.3.CO;2

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GREAT LAKES

Angel, J.R., 1995. Large-Scale Storm Damage on the U.S. Shores of the Great Lakes, Journal of Great Lakes Research, 21, 287-293. doi: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0380133095710395

Clites, A. H., J. Wang, K. B. Campbell, A. D. Gronewold, R. A. Assel, X. Bai and G. A. Leshkevich, 2014: Cold Water and High Ice Cover on Great Lakes in Spring 2014, Eos Trans. AGU, 95(34), 305

Hughes, L.A.,1965: The Prediction of Surges in the Southern Basin of Lake Michigan, Monthly Weather Review, 93(5), 292-296. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1965)093<0292:TPOSIT>2.3.CO;2

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HAIL

Cintineo, J.L., T.M. Smith, V. Lakshmanan, H.E. Brooks, and K.L. Ortega, 2012:  An Objective High-Resolution Hail Climatology of the Contiguous United States, Weather and Forecasting, 27(5) pp. 1235-1248. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-11-00151.1]

Cecil, D.J., and C.B. Blankenship, 2012:  Toward a Global Climatology of Severe Hailstorms as Estimated by Satellite Passive Microwave Imagers Journal of Climate, 25(2), 687-703. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00130.1]

Changnon S.A., and D. Changnon, 2000: Long-Term Fluctuations in Hail Incidences in the United States, Journal of Climate,13 (3), 658-664. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<0658:LTFIHI>2.0.CO;2]

Changnon,  S.A., Jr., 1984: Temporal and Spatial Variations in Hail in the Upper Great Plains and Midwest, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 23 (11) , 1531-1541. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1984)023<1531:TASVIH>2.0.CO;2]

Changnon, S.A., Jr., 1970: Hailstreaks, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 27(1), 109-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1970)027<0109:H>2.0.CO;2

Changnon, S.A., Jr., 1967: Areal-Temporal Variations of Hail Intensity in Illinois, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 6(3), 536-541. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1967)006<0536:ATVOHI>2.0.CO;2]

Changnon, S.A., Jr, 1962: Areal Frequencies of hail and thunderstorm days in Illinois, Monthly Weather Review, 90(12), 519-524. [ doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1962)090<0519:AFOHAT>2.0.CO;2 ]

Knight, N.C.,  1981: The Climatology of Hailstone Embryos, 1981. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 20( 7), 750-755. [ doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1981)020<0750:TCOHE>2.0.CO;2]

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HEAT WAVES

Kunkel, K.E., S.A. Changenon, B.C. Reinke, and R.W. Arritt, 1996:  The July 1995 Heat Wave in the Midwest: A Climatic Perspective and Critical Weather Factors, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77 (7), 1507-1518.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<1507:TJHWIT>2.0.CO;2

Rieck, T. C., 2009, Heat Index Climatology For The North-Central United States. NOAA Technical Service Publications NWS Central Region, TSP-17. [http://www.crh.noaa.gov/crh/ssd/pdf/tsp_17.pdf]

Westcott, N.E., 2011: The Prolonged 1954 Midwestern U.S. Heat Wave: Impacts and Responses, Weather, Climate, and Society, 3(3), 165-176.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-10-05002.1

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HUMIDITY

Ackerman, Bernice, 1987: Climatology of Chicago Area Urban-Rural Differences in Humidity. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 26, 427–430. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<0427:COCAUR>2.0.CO;2

Brown, P.J. and A.T. DeGaetano, 2012: Trends in U.S. surface humidity, 1930 – 2010, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Volume 0, Issue 0 ( ) pp. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-12-035.1

Gaffen, D.J., and R.J. Ross, 1999: Climatology and Trends of U.S. Surface Humidity and Temperature, Journal of Climate, 12(3), 811-828. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012%3C0811:CATOUS%3E2.0.CO;2

Lawrimore, Jay H., and Thomas C. Peterson, 2000: Pan Evaporation Trends in Dry and Humid Regions of the United States, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 1 (6), 543-546. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2000)001<0543:PETIDA>2.0.CO;2

Peixoto, J.P., and A.H. Oort, 1996: The Climatology of Relative Humidity in the Atmosphere, Journal of Climate, 9(12), 3443-3463. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<3443:TCORHI>2.0.CO;2

Rogers, J.C., S.H. Wang, and J.S.M. Coleman, 2007: Evaluation of a long-term (1882-2005) equivalent temperature time series. J. Climate, 20, 4476-4485. http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI4265.1.

Sandstrom, M.A., R.C. Lauritsen, and D. Changnon, 2003: A central U.S. summer extreme dewpoint climatology. Phys. Geog., 25, 191-207.

Sparks, J., D. Changnon, and J. Starke, 2002: Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Warm-Season Surface Dewpoints in Northeastern Illinois: Implications for Cooling-System Design and Operation, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 41(8), 890-898. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2002)041<0890:CITFOE>2.0.CO;2

Soden, B.J., and J.R. Lanzante, 1996:  An Assessment of Satellite and Radiosonde Climatologies of Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor, Journal of Climate, 9(6), 1235-1250. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<1235:AAOSAR>2.0.CO;2

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ICE & FREEZING RAIN

Bernstein, B.C., C.A. Wolff, F. McDonough, 2007:  An Inferred Climatology of Icing Conditions Aloft, Including Supercooled Large Drops. Part I: Canada and the Continental United States Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 46(11), 1857-1878. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007JAMC1607.1

Branick, M., 1997: A climatology of significant winter-type weather events in the contiguous United States, 1982–94. Weather and Forecasting, 12(2), 193–207. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1997)012<0193:ACOSWT>2.0.CO;2

Changnon, D. and R. Bigley, 2005: Fluctuations in US Freezing Rain Days. Climatic Change 69:2-3, 229-244.

Changnon, S.A., 2003: Characteristics of Ice Storms in the United States. J. Appl. Meteor., 42, 630–639. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<0630:COISIT>2.0.CO;2

Changnon, S.A., and T.R. Karl.,2003: Temporal and Spatial Variations of Freezing Rain in the Contiguous United States: 1948–2000. Journal of Applied Meteorology 42(9), 1302-1315.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1302:TASVOF>2.0.CO;2

Changnon, S.A. and K.E. Kunkel, 2006:  Severe Storms in the Midwest, Illinois State Water Survey Informational/Educational Material 2006-06,  74p. http://www.isws.illinois.edu/pubs/pubdetail.asp?CallNumber=ISWS+IEM+2006%2D06

Cortinas, J.V., Jr., 2000:  A Climatology of Freezing Rain in the Great Lakes Region of North America Monthly Weather Review, 128(10), 3574-3588. doi:http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129%3C3574%3AACOFRI%3E2.0.CO%3B2

Cortinas, J.V., Jr., B.C. Bernstein, C.C. Robbins, and J.W. Strapp, 2004: An Analysis of Freezing Rain, Freezing Drizzle, and Ice Pellets across the United States and Canada: 1976–90, Weather and Forecasting, 19(2), 377-390. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2004)019<0377:AAOFRF>2.0.CO;2

Rauber, L.S. Olthoff, M.K. Ramamurthy, D. Miller, and K. Kunkel, 2001: A synoptic weather pattern and sounding-based climatology of freezing precipitation in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. J. Appl. Meteor., 40(10), 1724–1747.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<1724:ASWPAS>2.0.CO;2

Robbins, C., and J. V. Cortinas, 2002: Local and synoptic environments associated with freezing rain in the contiguous U.S. Weather and Forecasting, 17(1), 47–65. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<0047:LASEAW>2.0.CO;2

Shan, L., and L. Marr, 1996: Ice storm data base and ice severity maps. Jones Power Delivery Tech. Rep. TR-106762, 42 pp.

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RAINFALL

Brooks, H.E. and D. J. Stensrud, 2000:  Climatology of Heavy Rain Events in the United States from Hourly Precipitation Observations, Monthly Weather Review, 128(4), 1194-1201. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<1194:COHREI>2.0.CO;2

Changnon, Stanley A., 2002: Hydroclimatic Differences in Precipitation Measured by Two Dense Rain Gauge Networks. J. Hydrometeor, 3, 66–79. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0066:HDIPMB>2.0.CO;2

Changnon, Stanley A., 2002: Frequency of Heavy Rainstorms on Areas from 10 to 10 000 km2, Defined Using Dense Rain Gauge Networks. J. Hydrometeor, 3, 220–223.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0220:FOHROA>2.0.CO;2

Diaz, H.F., and R.G. Quayle, 1980: The Climate of the United States since 1895: Spatial and Temporal Changes, Monthly Weather Review, 108 (3), 249-266.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<0249:TCOTUS>2.0.CO;2

Epstein, E.S., and A.G. Barnston, 1990: A Precipitation Climatology of 5-Day Periods, Journal of Climate, 3(2), 218-236. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1990)003<0218:APCODP>2.0.CO;2

Groisman, Pavel Ya., Richard W. Knight, Thomas R. Karl, 2012: Changes in Intense Precipitation over the Central United States. J. Hydrometeor, 13, 47–66. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-11-039.1

Higgins, R.W., V.E. Kousky, and P. Xie, 2011:  Extreme Precipitation events in the south-central United States during May and June 2010:  Historical perspective, Role of ENSO, and trends,.  J. Hydrometeorology, 12, 1056-1070. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-10-05039.1

Hitchens, N.M., H. E. Brooks, and R.S. Schumacher: 2013- 14. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Heavy Hourly Rainfall in the United States Monthly Weather Review, Volume 0, Issue 0 ( ) pp.

Junker, N.W., R.S. Schneider, S.L. Fauver, 1999: A Study of Heavy Rainfall Events during the Great Midwest Flood of 1993. Wea. Forecasting, 14, 701–712. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1999)014<0701:ASOHRE>2.0.CO;2

Kunkel, K.E., K. Andsager, and D.R. Kasterling, 1999:  Long-term trends in extreme precipitation events over the conterminous United States and Canada.  J. Climate, 12, 2515-2527. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<2515:LTTIEP>2.0.CO;2

Kunkel, K.E., D.R. Easterling, D.A.R.Kristovich, 2012:  Meteorological causes of the secular variations I n obsdrved extreme precipitation events for the conterminous United States.  J. Hydrometeorology, 13, 1131-1141. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-11-0108.1

Kunkel, K. E., D.R. Easterling, K. Redmond, and K. Hubbard, 2003: Temporal variations of extreme precipitation events in the United States: 1895–2000, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1900, 10.1029/2003GL018052. Abstract available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2003GL018052/abstract

Kunkel, K.E., 2003: North American Trends in Extreme Precipitation, Nat. Hazards, 29, 291-305. Abstract available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1023694115864

Konrad, Charles E., 2001: The Most Extreme Precipitation Events over the Eastern United States from 1950 to 1996: Considerations of Scale. J. Hydrometeor, 2, 309–325.

Overeem A., I. Holleman, and A. Buishand, 2009:  Derivation of a 10-Year Radar-Based Climatology of Rainfall, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 48(7), 1448-1463. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JAMC1954.1

Pavel Ya Groisman, Eugene L. Peck, Robert G. Quayle, 1999: Intercomparison of Recording and Standard Nonrecording U.S. Gauges, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 16(5), 602-609. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1999)016<0602:IORASN>2.0.CO;2

Schumacher, R.S., and R.H. Johnson, 2006: Characteristics of U.S. Extreme Rain Events during 1999–2003. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 69–85. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF900.1

Tuttle, J.D., R.E. Carbone, and P.A. Arkin, 2008:  Comparison of Ground-Based Radar and Geosynchronous Satellite Climatologies of Warm-Season Precipitation over the United States, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47(12), 3264-3270. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008JAMC2000.1

Villarini, G., J.A. Smith, and G.A. Vecchi, 2013: Changing Frequency of Heavy Rainfall over the Central United States.
J. Climate
, 26, 351–357.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00043.1

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SOCIETAL IMPACTS

Ashley, W.A., 2007: Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Tornado Fatalities in the United States: 1880–2005, Weather and Forecasting, Volume 22, Issue 6 (December 2007) pp. 1214-1228. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007WAF2007004.1

Ashley, S.T., and W.S. Ashley, 2008: Flood Fatalities in the United States, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Volume 47, Issue 3 (March 2008) pp. 805-818. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007JAMC1611.1

Ashley, W.S. and A.W. Black, 2008: Fatalities Associated with Nonconvective High-Wind Events in the United States, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Volume 47, Issue 2 (February 2008) pp. 717-725. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007JAMC1689.1

Ashley, W.S. and C.W. Gilson, 2009:  A Reassessment of U.S. Lightning Mortality Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90(10), 1501-1518. doi: http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/2009BAMS2765.1

Ashley, W.S., A.J. Krmenec, and R. Schwantes, 2008: Vulnerability due to Nocturnal Tornadoes, Weather and Forecasting, Volume 23, Issue 5 (October 2008) pp. 795-807. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008WAF2222132.1

Ashley, W.S., T.L. Mote, 2005: Derecho Hazards in the United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 1577–1592. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-86-11-1577

Barzyk, T.M., and J.E. Frederick, 2008: A Semiempirical Microscale Model of the Surface Energy Balance and Its Application to Two Urban Rooftops, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47( 3), 819-834. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007JAMC1431.1

Bertness, J., 1980: Rain-Related Impacts on Selected Transportation Activities and Utility Services in the Chicago Area, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 19(5), 545-556. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1980)019<0545:RRIOST>2.0.CO;2

Black, A.W. and W.S. Ashley, 2011: The Relationship between Tornadic and Nontornadic Convective Wind Fatalities and Warnings, Weather, Climate, and Society, Volume 3, Issue 1 (January 2011) pp. 31-47. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010WCAS1094.1

Blumenfeld, K.A., 2010: The Frequency of High-Impact Convective Weather Events in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49, 619–631. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JAMC2223.1

Chaney, P.L., and G.S. Weaver, 2010: The Vulnerability of Mobile Home Residents in Tornado Disasters: The 2008 Super Tuesday Tornado in Macon County, Tennessee. Wea. Climate Soc., 2, 190–199. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010WCAS1042.1

Changnon, S.A., Jr., 2010: An Atlas of Windstorms in the United States and Impacts. ISWS CR 2010-01. http://www.isws.illinois.edu/pubs/abstract.asp?PID=2571

Changnon, S., 2009: Tornado Losses in the United States. Nat. Hazards Rev., 10(4), 145–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2009)10:4(145)

Changnon, S.A.,1999: Record Flood-Producing Rainstorms of 17–18 July 1996 in the Chicago Metropolitan Area. Part III: Impacts and Responses to the Flash Flooding, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 38( 3), 273-280.doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<0273:RFPROJ>2.0.CO;2

Changnon, S. A., J. R. Angel, and D. Kristovich, 2010. The unusual weather of 2009 in Illinois created major impacts. Illinois State Water Survey Report of Investigation 120, 26 p. [available here as a pdf]

Changnon, S.A. and J. Burroughs, 2003: The Tristate Hailstorm: The Most Costly on Record, Monthly Weather Review, Volume 131, Issue 8 (August 2003) pp. 1734-1739 doi: http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175//2549.1

Curran, E.B., R.L. Holle, and R.E. López, 2000: Lightning Casualties and Damages in the United States from 1959 to 1994. J. Climate, 13, 3448–3464. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<3448:LCADIT>2.0.CO;2

Grundstein, A., J. Dowd, and V. Meentemeyer, 2010: Quantifying the Heat-Related Hazard for Children in Motor Vehicles. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 1183–1191.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010BAMS2912.1

Kunkel, K.E., S.A. Changnon, B.C. Reinke, and R.W. Arritt, 1996:  The July 1995 Heat Wave in the Midwest: A Climatic Perspective and Critical Weather Factors, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77 (7), 1507-1518.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<1507:TJHWIT>2.0.CO;2

Kunkel, K.E., R.A. Pielke, and S.A. Changnon, 1999: Temporal Fluctuations in Weather and Climate Extremes That Cause Economic and Human Health Impacts: A Review. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 1077–1098. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<1077:TFIWAC>2.0.CO;2

McLaren, C., J, Null, and J. Quinn, 2005: Heat Stress from Enclosed Vehicles: Moderate Ambient Temperature Cause Significant Temperature Rise in Enclosed Vehicles. Pediatrics, 116, e109, [http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/116/1/e109.full.html]

Palecki, M.A., S.A. Changnon, and K.E. Kunkel, 2001: The Nature and Impacts of the July 1999 Heat Wave in the Midwestern United States: Learning from the Lessons of 1995, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 82 (7), 1353-1367. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(2001)082<1353:TNAIOT>2.3.CO;2

Pielke, R.A., and M.W. Downton, 2000: Precipitation and Damaging Floods: Trends in the United States, 1932–97. J. Climate, 13, 3625–3637. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<3625:PADFTI>2.0.CO;2

Rowe, S.T., and G. Villarini. (2013) Flooding associated with predecessor rain events over the Midwest United States. Environmental Research Letters 8:2, 024007.  Online publication date: 1-Jun-2013

Schmidlin, T.W., 2009: Human fatalities from wind-related tree failuresin the United States, 1995–2007, Nat Hazards (2009) 50:13–25. DOI 10.1007/s11069-008-9314. [http://www.learningace.com/doc/5434019/cc6e793e0cde31eaa392c63e50019ead/schmidlin-tree-fatalities]

Smith, J.A., M.L. Baeck, Y. Zhang, and C.A. Doswell, 2001: Extreme Rainfall and Flooding from Supercell Thunderstorms. J. Hydrometeor, 2, 469–489. 
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2001)002<0469:ERAFFS>2.0.CO;2

Smith, J.A., G. Villarini, and M.L. Baeck, 2011: Mixture Distributions and the Hydroclimatology of Extreme Rainfall and Flooding in the Eastern United States. J. Hydrometeor, 12, 294–309.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010JHM1242.1

Smith, K.R., and  P.J. Roebber, 2011: Green Roof Mitigation Potential for a Proxy Future Climate Scenario in Chicago, Illinois, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 50(3), 507-522.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010JAMC2337.1

Westcott, N.E., 2011: The Prolonged 1954 Midwestern U.S. Heat Wave: Impacts and Responses, Wea., Clim., and Society, 3(3), 165-176.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-10-05002.1

Wolfe, R. (Ed.),J.R. Angel (contributor), 2008. The Easter Freeze of April 2007: A climatological perspective and assessment of impacts and services. NOAA Technical Report 2008-01, 56 p. [available here as a pdf].

Wurman, J., P. Robinson, C. Alexander, and Y. Richardson, 2007: Low-Level Winds in Tornadoes and Potential Catastrophic Tornado Impacts in Urban Areas, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 88 (1),  31-46.doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-88-1-31

Yang, L., J.A. Smith, D.B. Wright, M.L. Baeck, G. Villarini, F. Tian, and H. Hu: 2013-14, Urbanization and Climate Change: An Examination of Nonstationarities in Urban Flooding,  Journal of Hydrometeorology, Volume 0, Issue 0 ( ) pp., doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-12-095.1

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SOIL MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE

Adegoke, J. O., A. M. Carleton, S.J. McLaren, D.R. Kniveton, 1999: Warm season land surface – Climate interactions in the United States Midwest from mesoscale observations, Advance in Global Change Research, 6, 83-97.  http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F0-306-48086-7_5#page-1

Dale, R.F., 1965: The Climatology of Soil Moisture, Atmospheric Evaporative Demand, and Resulting Moisture Stress Days for Corn at Ames, Iowa, Journal of Applied Meteorology. 4(6), 661-669. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1965)004<0661:TCOSMA>2.0.CO;2]

Georgakakos, K. P., D. H., Bae, 1994:  Climatic variability of soil-water in the American Midwest, J of Hydrology, 162(3-4), 379-390.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022169494902372

Hollinger, S.E., and S.A. Isard,  1994:  A Soil Moisture Climatology of Illinois, Journal of Climate, 7(5), 822-833. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<0822:ASMCOI>2.0.CO;2]

Hu, Qi, and S. Feng, 2003: A Daily Soil Temperature Dataset and Soil Temperature Climatology of the Contiguous United States, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 42(8), 1139-1156. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1139:ADSTDA>2.0.CO;2

Miguez-Macho, G., H. Li, and Y. Fan,  2008:  Simulated Water Table and Soil Moisture Climatology Over North America, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89(5), 663-672. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-89-5-663]

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SNOW

Baxter, M.A., C.E. Graves, and J.T. Moore, 2005:  A Climatology of Snow-to-Liquid Ratio for the Contiguous United States, Weather and Forecasting, 20(5), 729-744. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF856.1.

Branick, M., 1997: A Climatology of Significant Winter-type Weather Events in the Contiguous United States, 1982–94. Weather and Forecasting, 12(2), 193–207. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1997)012<0193:ACOSWT>2.0.CO;2

Brubaker, K.L., R.T. Pinker and E. Deviatova, 2005:  Evaluation and Comparison of MODIS and IMS Snow-Cover Estimates for the Coneinental United States Using Station Data, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 6(6), 1002-1017. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM447.1

Changnon, D., C. Merinsky, and M. Lawson, 2008: Climatology of Surface Cyclone Tracks Associated with Large Central and Eastern U.S. Snowstorms, 1950–2000. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 3193–3202. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2324.1

Changnon, S.A., and D. Changnon, 2006: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Damaging Snowstorms in the United States. Natural Hazards 37(3), 373-389. [search: http://link.springer.com/journal/volumesAndIssues/11069]

Changnon, S.A., D. Changnon, and T.R. Karl, 2006: Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Snowstorms in the Contiguous United States. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 1141–1155. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAM2395.1

Clapp, P.F., 1967: Specification of Monthly Frequency of Snow Cover Based on Macroscale Parameters, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 6(6),1018-1024. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/15200450(1967)006<1018:SOMFOS>2.0.CO;2

Dewey, K.F., 1987: Satellite-Derived Maps of Snow Cover Frequency for the Northern Hemisphere, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 26(9),1210-1229. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<1210:SDMOSC>2.0.CO;2

Dewey, K.F. and R. Heim Jr., 1982: A Digital Archive of Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover, November 1966 through December 1980, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 63(10), 1132-1141. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1982)063<1132:ADAONH>2.0.CO;2

Gartner, W.E., J.E. Hoke, N.W. Junker, and L.E. Wolf, 1998: Comments on “A Climatology of Significant Winter-Type Weather Events in the Contiguous United States, 1982–94”, Weather and Forecasting, 13(3), 884-885.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1998)013<0884:COACOS>2.0.CO;2

Harrington, J.A., Jr., R.S. Cerveny, and K.F. Dewey, 1987:  A Climatology of Mean Monthly Snowfall for the Conterminous United States: Temporal and Spatial Patterns, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 26(8), 897-912. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<0897:ACOMMS>2.0.CO;2

Jorgensen, D.L.,1963: A Computer Derived Synoptic Climatology of Precipitation from Winter Storms, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 2(2), 226-234. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1963)002<0226:ACDSCO>2.0.CO;2

Kunkel, K.E., L. Ensor, M. Palecki, D. Easterling, D. Robinson, K.G. Hubbard, and K. Redmond, 2009: Trends in snowfall in the lake effect snow belts of the Laurentian Great Lakes: 1900-2007. J. Great Lakes Research, 35, 23-29. [Search http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/aip/03801330]

Kunkel, K.E., M. Palecki, L. Ensor, D. Easterling, K.G. Hubbard, D. Robinson, and K. Redmond, 2009: Trends in Twentieth-century U.S. Extreme Snowfall Seasons. J. Climate, 22(23), 6204-6216. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2631.1

Kunkel, K.E., M. Palecki, L. Ensor, K.G. Hubbard, D. Robinson, K. Redmond, and D. Easterling, 2009: Trends in Twentieth-century U.S. Snowfall Using a Quality-Controlled Dataset. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 26(1), 33-44. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008JTECHA1138.1

Kunkel, K.E., M.A. Palecki, K.G. Hubbard, D.A. Robinson, K.T. Redmond, D.R. Easterling, 2007: Trend Identification in Twentieth-Century U.S. Snowfall: The Challenges, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 24(1), 64-73. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JTECH2017.1

Leathers, D.J. and D.A. Robinson, 1993:The Association between Extremes in North American Snow Cover Extent and United States Temperatures, Journal of Climate, 6(7),1345-1355. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1345:TABEIN>2.0.CO;2

Leathers, D.J. and D. A. Robinson, 1997: Abrupt Changes in the Seasonal Cycle of North American Snow Cover, Journal of Climate, 10(10), 2569-2585. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<2569:ACITSC>2.0.CO;2

Market, P.S., C.E. Halcomb, and R.L. Ebert, 2002: A Climatology of Thundersnow Events over the Contiguous United States. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 1290–1295. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<1290:ACOTEO>2.0.CO;2

Schwartz, R.M., and T.W. Schmidlin, 2002: Climatology of Blizzards in the Conterminous United States, 1959–2000. J. Climate, 15, 1765–1772. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1765:COBITC>2.0.CO;2

Scialdone, J. and A. Robock, 1987: Comparison of Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Data Sets, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 26(1), 53-68. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<0053:CONHSC>2.0.CO;2

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STORM ENVIRONMENT

Carleton, A. M., D. L. Arnold, D. J. Travis, S. Curran, J. O. Adegoke, 2008:  Synoptic circulation and land surface influences on convection in the Midwest US “Corn Belt” during the summers of 1999 and 2000.  Part I:  Composite synoptic environments, J. of Climate, 21(14), 3389-3415.  http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/2007JCLI1578.1

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TELECONNECTIONS

Berger, C. L., A. R. Lupo, P. Browning, M. Bodner, M. D. Chambers, C. C. Rayburn, 2002:  A climatology of northwest Missouri snowfall events:  Long-term trends and interannual variability, Physical Geography, 23(6), 427-448.  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.2747/0272-3646.23.6.427?journalCode=tphy20#preview

Budikova, D., 2005:  Impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on relationships between temperature and the Arctic Oscillation in the USA in winter, Climate Res., 29(3), 199-208.  http://www.int-res.com/articles/cr2005/29/c029p199.pdf

Budikova, D., 2008:  Effect of the Arctic Oscillation on precipitation in the eastern USA during ENSO winters, Climate Research, 27(1), 3-16.  http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/cr/v37/n1/p3-16/

Changnon, D., J. Thompson, T. April, E. Schmidt, M. Falout, J. B. Davis, M. Russon, 2002:  Efforts to improve predictions of urban winter heating anomalies using various climate indices, Meteor. Appl., 9 (1), 105-111.  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1017/S1350482702001111/pdf

Lau, K. M., J. Y. Lee, K. M. Kim, I. S. Kang, 2004:  The North Pacific as a regulator of summertime climate over Eurasia and North America, J of Climate, 17(4), 819-833. http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0442%282004%29017%3C0819%3ATNPAAR%3E2.0.CO%3B2

O’Brien, J. J., 2001:  Regional snowfall distributions associated with ENSO: Implications for seasonal forecasting, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 1179-1191.  http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0477%282001%29082%3C1179%3ARSDAWE%3E2.3.CO%3B2

Pal, J. S., E. A. B. Eltahir, 2002:  Teleconnections of soil moisture and rainfall during the 1993 midwest summer flood, Geophys. Res. Letters, 29(18), 12-1 – 12-4.  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2002GL014815/abstract

Rajagopalan, B, 2000:  Spatiotemporal variability of ENSO and SST teleconnections to summer drought over the United States during the twentieth century, J of Climate, 13, 4244-4255. http://bechtel.colorado.edu/~balajir/my-papers/drought-paper-jclim.pdf

Sobolowski, S, A. Frei, 2007:  Lagged relationships between North American snow mass and atmospheric teleconnection indices, Internatl. J. of Climatology, 27(2), 221-231.  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.1395/abstract

Strong, C. J. Liptak, 2012:  Propagating atmospheric patterns associated with Midwest winter precipitation, J. of Hydrometeorology, 13(4), 1371-1382.  http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JHM-D-11-0111.1

Zhu J., L. Xin-Zhong, 2007:  Regional climate model simulations of US precipitation and surface air temperature during 1982-2002:  Interannual variation, J. of Climate, 20(2), 218-232.  http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI4129.1

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TEMPERATURE

Brohan, P., J.J. Kennedy, I. Harris, S.F.B. Tett, and P.D. Jones, 2006: Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: a new dataset from 1850. J. Geophysical Research, 111, D12106. http://www.agu.org/journals/abs/2006/2005JD006548.shtml.

Diaz, H.F., and R.G. Quayle, 1980: The Climate of the United States since 1895: Spatial and Temporal Changes, Monthly Weather Review, 108 (3), 249-266.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<0249:TCOTUS>2.0.CO;2

Gaffen, D.J., and R.J. Ross, 1999: Climatology and Trends of U.S. Surface Humidity and Temperature, Journal of Climate, 12(3), 811-828. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<1344:TTOTUS>2.0.CO;2

Gallo K.P., T.W. Owen, D.R. Easterling, and P.F. Jamason, 1999:  Temperature Trends of the U.S. Historical Climatology Network Based on Satellite-Designated Land Use/Land Cover, Journal of Climate, 12(5), 1344-1348.

Karl, T.R., and C.N. Williams Jr., 1987: An Approach to Adjusting Climatological Time Series for Discontinuous Inhomogeneities, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 26 (12), 1744-1763. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<1744:AATACT>2.0.CO;2

Karl, T.R., C.N. Williams, Jr., P.J. Young, and W.M. Wendland, 1986: A model to estimate the time of observation bias associated with monthly mean maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures for the United States, J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 145-160. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1986)025<0145:AMTETT>2.0.CO;2

Kunkel, K.E., D.R. Easterling, K. Hubbard, and K. Redmond, 2004: Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895-2000, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L03201, doi:10.1029/2003GL018624.

Menne, M.J., and C.N. Williams Jr., 2009: Homogenization of Temperature Series via Pairwise Comparisons, Journal of Climate, 22 (7), 1700-1717. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2263.1

Menne, M.J., C.N. Williams Jr., and R.S. Vose, 2009:  The U.S. Historical Climatology Network Monthly Temperature Data, Version 2, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90(7), 993-1007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008BAMS2613.1

Menne, M. J., C. N. Williams Jr., and M. A. Palecki, 2010: On the reliability of the U.S. surface temperature record. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D11108, doi:10.1029/2009JD013094.

Pan, Z., M. Segal, X. Li, and B. Zib, 2009: Global climate change impact on the Midwest USA-Summer cooling trend. Understanding climate change: Climate change impacts, risks vulnerability and adaptation in the Midwestern United States., S.C. Pryor, Ed., Indiana University Press, 29-41.

Quayle, R. G., D. R. Easterling, T. R. Karl, and P. Y. Hughes (1991), Effects of recent thermometer changes in the Cooperative Station Network. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72, 1718–1723. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1991)072<1718:EORTCI>2.0.CO;2

Quayle, R.G. and H.F. Diaz, 1980: Heating Degree Day Data Applied to Residential Heating Energy Consumption, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 19 (3) , 241-246. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1980)019<0241:HDDDAT>2.0.CO;2

Robinson, W.A., R. Reudy, and J.E. Hensen, 2002: General circulation model simulations of recent cooling in the east-central United States. J. Geophys. Res., 107 (D24), 4748, doi:10.1029/2001D001577.

Sun, B., C.B. Baker, T. R. Karl, and M.D. Gifford, 2005. A Comparative Study of ASOS and USCRN Temperature Measurements, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 22 (6),679-686. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JTECH1752.1

Vose, R.S., C.N. Williams, T.C. Peterson, T.R. Karl, and D.R. Easterling, 2003: An evaluation of the time of observation bias adjustment in the US Historical Climatology Network. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(20), 2046, doi:10.1029/2003GL018111.

Wendland, W.M., and  W. Armstrong, 1993: Comparison of Maximum–Minimum Resistance and Liquid-in-Glass Thermometer Records, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 10 (2), 233-237. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1993)010<0233:COMRAL>2.0.CO;2

Williams, C.N., M.J. Menne, and P.W. Thorne, 2012: Benchmarking the performance of pairwise homogenization of surface temperatures in the United States. J.Geophys. Res., 117, D05116, 16 PP., doi:10.1029/2011JD016761.

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THUNDERSTORMS

Clark, A.J., C.J. Schaffer, W.A. Gallus Jr., and K. Johnson-O’Mara, 2009:  Climatology of Storm Reports Relative to Upper-Level Jet Streaks,Weather and Forecasting, 24(4 (August 2009), 1032-1051.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009WAF2222216.1

Colman, B.R., 1990: Thunderstorms above Frontal Surfaces in Environments without Positive CAPE. Part I: A Climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1103–1122. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<1103:TAFSIE>2.0.CO;2

Colman, B.R., 1990: Thunderstorms above Frontal Surfaces in Environments without Positive CAPE. Part II: Organization and Instability Mechanisms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1123–1144. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<1123:TAFSIE>2.0.CO;2

Craven, J.P., and H.E. Brooks, 2004: Baseline Climatology of Sounding Derived Parameters Associated with Deep Moist Convection.   http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/users/brooks/public_html/papers/cravenbrooksnwa.pdf

Horgan, K.L, D.M. Schultz, J.E. Hales Jr., S.F. Corfidi, and R. H. Johns, 2007:  A Five-Year Climatology of Elevated Severe Convective Storms in the United States East of the Rocky Mountains, Weather and Forecasting, 22(5), 1031-1044.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF1032.1

Johns, R.H., 1984: A Synoptic Climatology of Northwest-Flow Severe Weather Outbreaks. Part II: Meteorological Parameters and Synoptic Patterns. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 449–464. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<0449:ASCONF>2.0.CO;2

Johns, R.H., 1982: A Synoptic Climatology of Northwest Flow Severe Weather Outbreaks. Part I: Nature and Significance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 1653–1663. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<1653:ASCONF>2.0.CO;2

Mäkelä, A., P. Rossi, and D.M. Schultz, 2011:  The Daily Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Flash Density in the Contiguous United States and Finland, Monthly Weather Review, 139(5), 1323-1337.
Mohee, F.M., and C. Miller, 2010:  Climatology of Thunderstorms for North Dakota, 2002–06,  Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 49(9), 1881-1890. doi: http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/2010MWR3517.1

Burke, Patrick C., David M. Schultz, 2004: A 4-Yr Climatology of Cold-Season Bow Echoes over the Continental United States. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 1061–1074.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/811.1

Evans, Jeffry S., Charles A. Doswell, 2001: Examination of Derecho Environments Using Proximity Soundings. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 329–342.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2001)016<0329:EODEUP>2.0.CO;2

Colquhoun, John R., Philip A. Riley, 1996: Relationships between Tornado Intensity and Various Wind and Thermodynamic Variables. Wea. Forecasting, 11, 360–371.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1996)011<0360:RBTIAV>2.0.CO;2

Kerr, Brynn W., Grant L. Darkow, 1996: Storm-Relative Winds and Helicity in the Tornadic Thunderstorm Environment. Wea. Forecasting, 11, 489–505.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1996)011<0489:SRWAHI>2.0.CO;2

Maddox, Robert A., 1976: An Evaluation of Tornado Proximity Wind and Stability Data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104, 133–142. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1976)104<0133:AEOTPW>2.0.CO;2

McCaul, Eugene W., 1991: Buoyancy and Shear Characteristics of Hurricane-Tornado Environments. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 1954–1978. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1991)119<1954:BASCOH>2.0.CO;2

Potvin, Corey K., Kimberly L. Elmore, Steven J. Weiss, 2010: Assessing the Impacts of Proximity Sounding Criteria on the Climatology of Significant Tornado Environments. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 921–930. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010WAF2222368.1

Carey, Lawrence D., Kurt M. Buffalo, 2007: Environmental Control of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Polarity in Severe Storms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 1327–1353.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/MWR3361.1

Thompson, Richard L., Corey M. Mead, Roger Edwards, 2007: Effective Storm-Relative Helicity and Bulk Shear in Supercell Thunderstorm Environments. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 102–115.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF969.1

Smith, B.T., R.L. Thompson, J.S. Grams, C. Broyles, and H.E. Brooks, 2012: Convective Modes for Significant Severe Thunderstorms in the Contiguous United States. Part I: Storm Classification and Climatology, Weather and Forecasting, 0(0), doi: http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/WAF-D-11-00115.1

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TORNADOES

Brooks, H.E., 2004: On the Relationship of Tornado Path Length and Width to Intensity. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 310–319. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2004)019<0310:OTROTP>2.0.CO;2

Brooks, H.E., C.A. Doswell, and J. Cooper, 1994: On the Environments of Tornadic and Nontornadic Mesocyclones. Wea. Forecasting, 9, 606–618. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1994)009<0606:OTEOTA>2.0.CO;2

Brooks, H.E., C.A. Doswell, and M.P. Kay, 2003: Climatological Estimates of Local Daily Tornado Probability for the United States. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 626–640.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018<0626:CEOLDT>2.0.CO;2

Davies, J.M., 2006: Tornadoes with Cold Core 500-mb Lows. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 1051–1062. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF967.1

Davies, J.M., 2006: Tornadoes in Environments with Small Helicity and/or High LCL Heights. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 579–594. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF928.1

Doswell III, C.A. and D.W. Burgess, 1988:  On Some Issues of United States Tornado Climatology, Monthly Weather Review, 116(2), 495-501. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<0495:OSIOUS>2.0.CO;2]

Feuerstein, B., N. Dotzek, and J. Grieser, 2005:  Assessing a Tornado Climatology from Global Tornado Intensity Distributions, Journal of Climate, 18(4), 585-596. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-3285.1

Grams, J.S., R.L. Thompson, D.V. Snively, J.A. Prentice, G.M. Hodges, and L.J. Reames, 2012: A Climatology and Comparison of Parameters for Significant Tornado Events in the United States, Weather and Forecasting, 27(1), 106-123.

Kelly, D.L, J.T. Schaefer, C.A. Doswell III, 1985:  Climatology of Nontornadic Severe Thunderstorm Events in the United States. Monthly Weather Review, 113(11) pp. 1997-2014. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1985)113<1997:CONSTE>2.0.CO;2]

Kelly, D.L., J. T. Schaefer, R. P. McNulty, C. A. Doswell III, R. and F. Abbey Jr., 1978:  An Augmented Tornado Climatology, Monthly Weather Review, 106(8), 1172-1183. {doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1978)106<1172:AATC>2.0.CO;2}

King, P.W.S., M.J. Leduc, D.M.L. Sills, N.R. Donaldson, D.R. Hudak, P. Joe, and B.P. Murphy, 2003: Lake Breezes in Southern Ontario and Their Relation to Tornado Climatology, Weather and Forecasting, 18(5), 795-807. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018<0795:LBISOA>2.0.CO;2]

Kis, A.K., and J.M. Straka, 2010: Nocturnal Tornado Climatology, Weather and Forecasting, 25(2), 545-561. [doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009WAF2222294.1]

Rasmussen E.N., and D.O. Blanchard, 1998: A Baseline Climatology of Sounding- Derived Supercell and Tornado Forecast Parameters.  Wea. Forecasting, 13, 1148-1164. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1998)013<1148:ABCOSD>2.0.CO;2

Schumacher, R.S., D.T. Lindsey, A. B. Schumacher, J.  Braun, St.D. Miller, and J.L. Demuth, 2010:  Multidisciplinary Analysis of an Unusual Tornado: Meteorology, Climatology, and the Communication and Interpretation of Warnings, Weather and Forecasting, 25(5), 1412-1429. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010WAF2222396.1]

Trapp, R,J., G,J. Stumpf, and K,L. Manross, 2005: A Reassessment of the Percentage of Tornadic Mesocyclones. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 680–687.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF864.1

Trapp, R.J., S.A. Tessendorf, E. Savageau Godfrey, and H.E. Brooks, 2005: Tornadoes from Squall Lines and Bow Echoes. Part I: Climatological Distribution. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 23–34. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF-835.1

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WINDS & WIND CHILL

Applequist, S., 2012: Wind Rose Bias Correction, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 51 (7),1305-130. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0193.1

DeGaetano, A. T., 1998: Identification and implications of biases in U.S. surface wind observation, archival, and summarization methods. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 60, 151–162. [available as a pdf here]

Klink, K., 1999a: Climatological mean and interannual variance of United States surface wind speed, direction and velocity. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 471–488. doi: http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/full/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015%3C3311%3ATAIVOW%3E2.0.CO%3B2

——, 1999b: Trends in mean monthly maximum and minimum surface wind speeds in the coterminous United States, 1961 to 1990. Climate Res., 13, 193–205.

——, 2002: Trends and interannual variability of wind speed distributions in Minnesota. J. Climate, 15, 3311–3317.

Kruk, M.C., E.J. Gibney, D.H. Levinson, and M.Squires, 2010: A Climatology of Inland Winds from Tropical Cyclones for the Eastern United States, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 49 (7), 1538-1547. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010JAMC2389.1

Lacke,  M.C., J.A. Knox, J.D. Frye, A.E. Stewart, J.D. Durkee, C.M. Fuhrmann,and S.M. Dillingham, 2007:  A Climatology of Cold-Season Nonconvective Wind Events in the Great Lakes Region, Journal of Climate, 20(24), 6012-6022. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1750.1

Mitchell, M.J., R.W. Arritt, and K. Labas, 1995: A Climatology of the Warm Season Great Plains Low-Level Jet Using Wind Profiler Observations, Weather and Forecasting, 10 (3), 576-591. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1995)010<0576:ACOTWS>2.0.CO;2

Peterson, T. C., and Coauthors, 1998: Homogeneity adjustments of in situ atmospheric climate data: A review. Int. J. Climatol., 18,1493–1517. [available as a pdf here]

Pryor, S.C., R.J. Barthelmie, D.T. Young, E.S. Takle, R.W. Arritt, W.J. Gutowski Jr., A. Nunes, and J. Road, 2009b: Wind Speed trends over the contiguous USA. J. Geo. Res, 114, D14105 [doi:10.1029/2008JD011416].

Pryor, S.C., and J. Ledolter,2010: Addendum to “Wind speed trends over the contiguous United States”. Journal of Geophysical Research 115:D10,  [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11510103P] .

Rieck, T.C. and S.E. Binau, 2008, Wind Chill Climatology for the North-Central United States. NOAA Technical Service Publications NWS Central Region, TSP-15. [Available online at [http://www.crh.noaa.gov/crh/ssd/pdf/tsp_15.pdf]

Schoen, J.M., and W.S. Ashley, 2011: A Climatology of Fatal Convective Wind Events by Storm Type,
Weather and Forecasting, 26 (1),109-121. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010WAF2222428.1

Smith, B.T., T.E. Castellanos, A.C. Winters, C.M. Mead, A.R. Dean, and R.L. Thompson, 2013: Measured Severe Convective Wind Climatology and Associated Convective Modes of Thunderstorms in the Contiguous United States, 2003-2009, Weather and Forecasting, 0(0),  . doi: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-12-00096.1]

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These technical reports provide a description of the trends in climate over the past 100 years for the United States and for 8 regions within the United States.  They represent a targeted synthesis of historical and emission-dependent future climate conditions around the specific regions of the NCA.  There are two components of these descriptions. One component is a description of the historical climate conditions in the region. The other component is a description of the climate conditions associated with two future pathways of greenhouse gas emissions based on IPCC emission scenarios. (Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment, NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142)

This is the technical report specifically for the Midwestern United States:  Part 3: Climate of the Midwest U.S. (Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment, NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142) (pdf)

The NATIONAL CLIMATE ASSESSMENT REPORT in now available for Public Review  Federal Advisory Committee Draft Climate Assessment Report Released for Public Review.  This report contains information related to various sectors affected by climate (water, energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry, ecosystems, human health, urban systems, rural communities, biochemical cycles, and again the 8 regions of the United States described in the technical reports and coastal and marine enviroments. 

The full report is available here: Full Report of Draft National Climate Assessment (pdf), and the chapter specially discussing the Midwestern Region here:  Chapter 18: Midwest (from Full Report of Draft National Climate Assessment) (pdf)

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